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List of Sub-Saharan African folk music traditions

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List of Sub-Saharan African folk music traditions

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Lists of folk music traditions
Americas: North, Central, Latin, South America and the Caribbean
Asia: East, Central, North, South, Southeast
Europe: Northern, Eastern, Southeastern, Southern, Western
Middle East and North Africa: Southwest Asia
Oceania and Australia: Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
Sub-Saharan Africa: Central, East, Southern and West

This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. The term folk music can not be easily defined in a precise manner; it is used with widely-varying definitions depending on the author, intended audience and context within a work. Similarly, the term traditions in this context does not connote any strictly-defined criteria. Music scholars, journalists, audiences, record industry individuals, politicians, nationalists and demagogues may often have occasion to address which fields of folk music are distinct traditions based along racial, geographic, linguistic, religious, tribal or ethnic lines, and all such peoples will likely use different criteria to decide what constitutes a "folk music tradition". This list uses the same general categories used by mainstream, primarily English-language, scholarly sources, as determined by relevant statements of fact and the internal structure of works.

These traditions may coincide entirely, partially or not at all with geographic, political, linguistic or cultural boundaries. Very few, if any, music scholars would claim that there are any folk music traditions that can be considered specific to a distinct group of people and with characteristics undiluted by contact with the music of other peoples; thus, the folk music traditions described herein overlap in varying degrees with each other.

Contents

Central Africa

A traditional Bamileke tam tam

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Aka See Pygmy - - -
Baka See Pygmy - - -
Bamileke [1] mangambe   tam tam  
Bashi [2]     lulanga  
Bassa [3] assiko      
Beti-Pahuin [4] bikutsi bikutsi njang - rattle  
Efé See Pygmy - - -
Fang [5] chorus and drum group   mvet bebom-mvet
Mambuti See Pygmy - - -
Mbuti See Pygmy - - -
Pygmy [6] hindewhu - hocket - likanos - liquindi - lullaby - yelli   flute - ieta - limbindi - molimo - ngombi - trumpet - whistle boona - elima - jengi - molimo
São Toméan [7] danço-congo - dêxa - socopé - ússua - xtléva danço-congo - puíta - ússua cowbell - flute - rattle Tchiloli

Central and Northern Asia

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Armenian [8] ashoug kochare - shalako davul - dhol - duduk - kamancha - kanon - oud - tar - zurna  
Azeri [9] Ashiq - tanbur   balaban - daf - kemanche - tar - tulumzurna toi
Kazakh [10] akyn   kui - dombra - qobuz - rubab - tanbur toi
Kyrgyz [11] kui - manaschi   kyl kyyak - komuz - tanbur toi
Mongolian [12] bangnadyr - bogino-duu - borbannadir - chylandyk - duulah - epic song - ezengileer - ger - häälah - holboo - höömi - aman huur - kargiraa - long song - magtel - sigit - throat-singing - türleg - üliger - xöömi garuda dörvon chihtei huur - flute - huuchir - igil - ikil - Jew's harp - limbe - morin huur - pyzanchy - shanz - shöör - toshpulur  
Tajik [13] falak   dutar - gidjak - setar - tanbur toi
Tibetan [14] hua'er - lhamo - lu sword dance dramnyen - dung chen - gyümang - lingbu - piwang - rag-dung - rgya-gling Ge-sar - Gelgpa
Turkmen [15] bakshy   dutar - tanbur toi
Tuvan See Mongolian - - -
Uighur        
Uzbek [16]     doira - dombra - dutar - gidjak - rubab - tanbur toi
Yakut [17] olonkho   khomus  

East Africa

  A kayamb, a traditional Reunionnais instrument

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Acholi [18]     adungu  
Bahutu See Rwanda-Burundian - - -
Borana [19]     chamonge guitar  
Baganda See Buganda - - -
Buganda [20] akadinda - entenga - okunaga - okwawula baksimba akadinda - engelabi - ennanga - entenga - trumpet  
Burundian See Rwandan-Burundian - - -
Dinka [21]        
Ethiopia [22]     kebero - krar - masenqo - washint azmari - tedjbet
Ganda See Buganda - - -
Gusii [23]     ground bow - obokano  
Hutu See Rwandan-Burundian - - -
Lango [24]     okeme  
Luhya [25]     sukuti  
Luo [26] benga   nyatiti  
Maasai [27] polyphonic song     eunoto
Mascarene Islands [28] maloya music - sega sega kayamb - maravanne - ravanne - tambour maloya (ritual)
Mauritian See Mascarene Islands - - -
Réunionnais See Mascarene Islands - - -
Rodrigues See Mascarene Islands - - -
Nuba [29]     rababa Kambala
Rwandan and Burundian [30]   ikinimba ikembe - inanga - ingoma - iningiri - umuduri  
Seychellois [31]   contonbley - contredanse - mazurka - polka    
Soga [32]     panpipe  
Swahili [33] gungu - kinanda - ngoma - wedding music chakacha - kumbwaya - vugo dumbak - kibangala - oud - qanun - rika - tabla - taishokoto  
Tutsi See Rwandan-Burundian - - -
Twa See Pygmy - - -
Watusi See Rwanda-Burundian - - -
Zande [34]        
Zaramo [35] ngoma msondo - ngoma msondo  

Southern Africa

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Afrikaans [36] orkes   accordion - concertina  
Basarwa See Bushmen - - -
Bemba [37]     babatone - kalela  
Bushmen [38] hocket      
Cewa See Chewa - - -
Chewa [39]   gule wa mkulu - nyau    
Chopi [40] timbala   kalimba - mbila - timbila - valimba - xigovia - xipala-pala - xipendane - xitende - xizambe  
Comorian [41] ngoma   gabusi - msondo - ndzendze  
Henga [42]   vimbuza    
Kaonde [43]   kachacha    
Khoe See Bushmen - - -
Khwe See Bushmen - - -
!Kung See Bushmen - - -
Lemba [44]     mbira  
Lomwe [45]   tchopa    
Luvale [46]   manchancha    
Malagasy [47] sega - vakodrazana basese - salegy - sega - sigaoma - tsapika - watsa watsa jejy voatavo - kabosy - lokanga - marovany - sodina - valiha famadihana
Ndbele [48]     guitar bira
Ngoni [49]   ingoma    
Nyanja [50]   chitsukulumwe - gule wa mkulu - likhuba    
Pedi [51] harepa   harepa  
San See Bushmen - - -
Shangaan [52]     guitar  
Shona [53]     hosho - karimba - matepe - mbira - ngoma - njari - panpipe bira - kushaura-kutsinhira
Sotho [54] mohabelo      
Tonga [55]   mganda    
Tsonga See Shangaan - - -
Tumbuka [56]   vimbuza    
Venda [57]     ngoma - panpipe  
Xhosa [58]     uhadi  
Yao [59]   beni - likwata    
Yombe [60]     panpipe  
Zulu [61] izihlabo - maskanda   guitar ukubonga

West Africa

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Abaluhya [62] litungo      
Adja [63] tchinkoumé      
Akan [64] adaha - agbadza - akwete - ashiko - asonko - dagomba - gombe - konkomba - mainline - osibisaba - sikyi adowa - osibisaba - sikyi atumpan - seprewa  
Appollo [65]   abissa - fanfare - grolo - sidder edengole  
Balanta [66] brosca - kussundé      
Asante See Ashanti - - -
Ashanti [67] adowa - kete   aburukawa - apentemma - dawuro - torowa  
Bamana See Mande - - -
Baoulé [68] gbébé - polyphony      
Beriberi [69] polyphonic song gerewol    
Bijagos [70]        
Cape Verdean [71] batuco - coladera - finaçon - funana - gaita - morna - tchabeta batuco - funana - tabanka - torno accordion - cavaquinho - cimbo - ferrinho - rabeca - violão - viola badiu
Daggamba [72]   takai fiddle - lunga - lute - talking drum  
Dan [73]   mask dance    
Ewe [74] takada agbadza - Gadzo atsimevu - axatse - gankogui - gboba - kaganu - kidi - simevu - sogo  
Fula [75]     fiddle - flute gawlo
Fulani See Fula - - -
Goun [76]     kakagbo - hongan  
Hausa [77] praise song - rokon fada asauwara - bori aglhaïta - duma - ganga - goge - kakati - kalangu - kontigi - kukkuma - molo bòòríí
Igbo [78] egwu ota   obo - ufie  
Kasena [79] hocket - jongo - len yoro jongo - nagila - pe zara - war dance gullu - gungonga - korbala - kornia - sinyegule - wua - yong wui  
Lobi [80]     xylophone  
Luo [81] nyatiti      
Mande [82] donkilo - jaliya - kumbengo - praise singing - sataro - Wassoulou hunters' song bansango - didadi - dimba - sogominkum balo - balafon - bolon - djembe - doundoun - fle - kamalengoni - karinyan - kontingo - kora - ngoni - soku - tama - tamani jali - jatigui - nyamakala
Mandinka See Mande - - -
Maninka See Mande - - -
Mauritanian [83] al-bayda - epic - fagu - l'-gnaydiya - al-kahla - karr - labyad - lakhal - lebtayt - praise song   ardin - daghumma - tbal - tidinit iggawin
Mossi [84] djambadon - griot     Larle Naaba
Pulaar See Fula - - -
Sahrawi See Mauritanian - - -
Senoufo [85] funereal music - poro      
Serer [86] polyphonic song      
Toucouleur [87]        
Tukulor See Toucouleur - - -
Wolof [88]   farwoudiar halam gewel
Yoruba [89] dundun   bata - dundun - gangan - gudugudu - igbin - iyalu - kakakai - sekere spraying

References

  • Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music, First edition, London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1858286360.
  • Karolyi, Otto (1998). Traditional African & Oriental Music. Penguin Books. ISBN 014023107.
  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. New York: Oxford University Press. 0195053427.
  • Philip V. Bohlman; Bruno Nettl, Charles Capwell, Thomas Turino and Isabel K. F. Wong (1997). Excursions in World Music, Second edition, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0132306328.
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Fujie, Linda, James T. Koetting, David P. McAllester, David B. Reck, John M. Schechter, Mark Slobin and R. Anderson Sutton (1992). Jeff Todd Titan (Ed.) Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, Second Edition, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0028726022.
  • International Dance Glossary. World Music Central. URL accessed on April 3, 2006.

Notes

  1. ^ Nkolo, Jean-Victor and Graeme Ewens, "Music of a Small Continent" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 440 - 447
  2. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 142
  3. ^ Nkolo, Jean-Victor and Graeme Ewens, "Music of a Small Continent" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 440 - 447
  4. ^ Nkolo, Jean-Victor and Graeme Ewens, "Music of a Small Continent" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 440 - 447
  5. ^ Dominguez, Manuel, "Malabo Blues" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 477 - 479
  6. ^ Includes the Aka, Baka, Mbuti and Efé; Turino, pgs. 170 - 171; Abram, Dave, "Sounds from the African Rainforest" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 601 - 607; Karolyi, pg. 24
  7. ^ Lima, Conceução and Caroline Shaw, "Island Music of Central Africa" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 613 - 616
  8. ^ Hagopian, Harold, "The Sorrowful Sound" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 332 - 337
  9. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  10. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  11. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  12. ^ Includes the music of Tuva; Rees, Helen, with Zhang Xingrong and Li Wei, "Sounds of the Frontiers", in the Rough Guide to World Musics, pg. 44 - 48; Pegg, Carole, "Sixty Horses in My Herd", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 189 - 197
  13. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  14. ^ Rees, Helen, with Zhang Xingrong and Li Wei, "Sounds of the Frontiers", in the Rough Guide to World Musics, pgs. 44 - 48; Trewin, Mark, "Raising the Roof", in the Rough Guide to World Musics, pgs. 254 - 261; Karolyi, pgs. 176, 179
  15. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  16. ^ Sultanova, Razia and Simon Broughton, "Bards of the Golden Road", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 24 - 32
  17. ^ Broughton, Simon and Tatiana Didenko, "Music of the People" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 248 - 254
  18. ^ Turino, pgs. 179, 182; Sandahl, Sten, "Exiles and Traditions" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 698 - 701
  19. ^ Paterson, Doug, "The Life and Times of Kenyan Pop" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 509 - 522
  20. ^ Turino, pgs. 179, 182; Sandahl, Sten, "Exiles and Traditions" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 698 - 701; Koetting, James T., "Africa/Ghana" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 67 - 105; World Music Central
  21. ^ Verney, Peter with Helen Jerome and Moawia Yassin, "Yearning to Dance" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 672 - 680
  22. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 103; Falceto, Francis, "Land of Wax and Gold" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 480 - 487
  23. ^ Paterson, Doug, "The Life and Times of Kenyan Pop" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 509 - 522
  24. ^ Turino, pgs. 179, 182; Sandahl, Sten, "Exiles and Traditions" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 698 - 701
  25. ^ Paterson, Doug, "The Life and Times of Kenyan Pop" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 509 - 522
  26. ^ Paterson, Doug, "The Life and Times of Kenyan Pop" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 509 - 522
  27. ^ Paterson, Doug, "The Life and Times of Kenyan Pop" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 509 - 522
  28. ^ includes the music of Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues; Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 112; Ewens, Graeme and Werner Graebner, "A Lightness of Touch" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 505 - 508
  29. ^ Verney, Peter with Helen Jerome and Moawia Yassin, "Yearning to Dance" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 672 - 680
  30. ^ Jacquemin, Jean-Pierre, Jadot Sezirahigha and Richard Trillo, "Echoes from the Hills" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 608 - 612
  31. ^ Ewens, Graeme and Werner Graebner, "A Lightness of Touch" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 505 - 508
  32. ^ Turino, pg. 183
  33. ^ Graebner, Werner, "Mtindo - Dance with Style" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 681 - 689
  34. ^ Verney, Peter with Helen Jerome and Moawia Yassin, "Yearning to Dance" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 672 - 680
  35. ^ Graebner, Werner, "Mtindo - Dance with Style" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 681 - 689
  36. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  37. ^ Ronnie Graham with Simon Kandela Tunkanya, "Evolution and Expression" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 702 - 705
  38. ^ Karolyi, pg. 24
  39. ^ Lwanda, John, and Ronnie Graham with Simon Kandela Tunkanya, "Sounds Afroma!" and "Evolution and Expression" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538, and pgs. 702 - 705
  40. ^ Paco, Celso, "A Luta Continua" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 579 - 584; Karolyi, pg. 32; Koetting, James T., "Africa/Ghana" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 67 - 105
  41. ^ Ewens, Graeme and Werner Graebner, "A Lightness of Touch" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 505 - 508
  42. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  43. ^ Ronnie Graham with Simon Kandela Tunkanya, "Evolution and Expression" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 702 - 705
  44. ^ Karolyi, pg. 45
  45. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  46. ^ Ronnie Graham with Simon Kandela Tunkanya, "Evolution and Expression" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 702 - 705
  47. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 111 - 112; World Music Central
  48. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  49. ^ Lwanda, John, and Ronnie Graham with Simon Kandela Tunkanya, "Sounds Afroma!" and "Evolution and Expression" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538, and pgs. 702 - 705
  50. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  51. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  52. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  53. ^ Turino, pgs. 105, 162, 182 - 183; Kendall, Judy and Banning Eyre, "Jit, Mbira and Chimurenga" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 706 - 716
  54. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  55. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  56. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  57. ^ Turino, pg. 183; Karolyi, pg. 37
  58. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 107
  59. ^ Lwanda, John, "Sounds Afroma!" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 533 - 538
  60. ^ Turino, pg. 183
  61. ^ Allingham, Rob, "The Nation of Voice" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 638 - 657
  62. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 101
  63. ^ Bensignor, Fran&ccedi;ois with Eric Audra, "Afro-Funksters" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 432 - 436
  64. ^ includes the Ashanti, Fanti and Nzema; Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 90, 92, 182; Collins, John, "Gold Coast: Highlife and Roots" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 488 - 498; Koetting, James T., "Africa/Ghana" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 67 - 105
  65. ^ Bensignor, François and Brooke Wentz, "Heart of the African Music Industry" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 472 - 476
  66. ^ de Klein, Guus, "The Backyard Beats of Gumbe" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 499 - 504
  67. ^ Koetting, James T., "Africa/Ghana" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 67 - 105
  68. ^ Bensignor, François and Brooke Wentz, "Heart of the African Music Industry" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 472 - 476
  69. ^ Bensignor, François, "Sounds of the Sahel" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 585 - 587
  70. ^ de Klein, Guus, "The Backyard Beats of Gumbe" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 499 - 504
  71. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 96; Máximo, Susana and David Peterson, "Music of Sweet Sorrow" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 448 - 457
  72. ^ Turino, pg. 182; Collins, John, "Gold Coast: Highlife and Roots" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 488 - 498
  73. ^ Bensignor, François and Brooke Wentz, "Heart of the African Music Industry" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 472 - 476
  74. ^ Turino, pg. 178; Collins, John, "Gold Coast: Highlife and Roots" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 488 - 498
  75. ^ Hudson, Mark with Jenny Cathcart and Lucy Duran, "Senegambian Stars Are Here to Stay" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 617 - 633; Karolyi, pg. 42
  76. ^ Bensignor, Fran&ccedi;ois with Eric Audra, "Afro-Funksters" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 432 - 436
  77. ^ Turino, pg. 184; Bensignor, François and Ronnie Graham, "Sounds of the Sahel" and "From Hausa Music to Highlife" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 585 - 587 and pgs. 588 - 600
  78. ^ Ronnie Graham, "From Hausa Music to Highlife" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 588 - 600
  79. ^ Koetting, James T., "Africa/Ghana" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 67 - 105
  80. ^ Bensignor, François and Brooke Wentz, "Heart of the African Music Industry" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 472 - 476
  81. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 101
  82. ^ Includes the Mandinka, Maninka and Bamana; Turino, pgs. 172 - 173; Bensignor, Fran&ccedi;ois, Guus de Klein, and Lucy Duran, "Hidden Treasure", "The Backyard Beats of Gumbe" and "West Africa's Musical Powerhouse" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 437 - 439, pgs. 499 - 504 and pgs. 539 - 562; Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 95; World Music Central
  83. ^ Includes Sahrawi music; Muddyman, David and Richard Trillo, "The Ways of the Moors" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 563 - 566
  84. ^ Bensignor, Fran&ccedi;ois, "Hidden Treasure" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 437 - 439
  85. ^ Bensignor, François and Brooke Wentz, "Heart of the African Music Industry" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 472 - 476
  86. ^ Hudson, Mark with Jenny Cathcart and Lucy Duran, "Senegambian Stars Are Here to Stay" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 617 - 633
  87. ^ Hudson, Mark with Jenny Cathcart and Lucy Duran, "Senegambian Stars Are Here to Stay" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 617 - 633
  88. ^ Turino, pg. 183; Hudson, Mark with Jenny Cathcart and Lucy Duran, "Senegambian Stars Are Here to Stay" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 617 - 633; World Music Central
  89. ^ Turino, pgs. 181 - 182; Bensignor, Fran&ccedi;ois with Eric Audra, and Ronnie Graham, "Afro-Funksters" and "From Hausa Music to Highlife" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 432 - 436 and pgs. 588 - 600; Karolyi, pg. 43

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