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List of North, Central and South American folk music traditions

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List of North, Central and South American folk music traditions

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Lists of folk music traditions
Americas: North, Central, Latin, South America and the Caribbean
Asia: East, Central, North, South, Southeast
Europe: Northern, Eastern, Southeastern, Southern, Western
Middle East and North Africa: Southwest Asia
Oceania and Australia: Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
Sub-Saharan Africa: Central, East, Southern and West

This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. The term folk music can not be easily defined in a precise manner; it is used with widely-varying definitions depending on the author, intended audience and context within a work. Similarly, the term traditions in this context does not connote any strictly-defined criteria. Music scholars, journalists, audiences, record industry individuals, politicians, nationalists and demagogues may often have occasion to address which fields of folk music are distinct traditions based along racial, geographic, linguistic, religious, tribal or ethnic lines, and all such peoples will likely use different criteria to decide what constitutes a "folk music tradition". This list uses the same general categories used by mainstream, primarily English-language, scholarly sources, as determined by relevant statements of fact and the internal structure of works.

These traditions may coincide entirely, partially or not at all with geographic, political, linguistic or cultural boundaries. Very few, if any, music scholars would claim that there are any folk music traditions that can be considered specific to a distinct group of people and with characteristics undiluted by contact with the music of other peoples; thus, the folk music traditions described herein overlap in varying degrees with each other.

Contents

Caribbean and Central America

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Aruban See Dutch Antillean - - -
Bahamian [1] ant'em - goombay - junkanoo - rake-and-scrape - rhyming spiritual - ring-play - shape-note quadrille - ring-dance goombay - guitar - maraca - saw Obeah
Belizean mestizo [2] brukdown   accordion - banjo - dingaling - guitar - marimba  
Bonaire See Dutch Antillean - - -
Cuban [3] afros - bachata - bembé - bolero - bunga - canción - chambelona - changüí - cierre - cinquillo - cocoyé - criolla - décima - diana - estudiantina - fragaya - guaracha - guajira - habanera - kiribá - lloraos - martillo - montuno - nengones - pregón - punto - repique - rumba - salamaleco - son - sucu-sucu - tonada - toque - tumbao areito - bembé - chuchumbé - columbia - contradanza - danón - guaguancó - guaracha - makúa - makuta - maní - mañunga - masón - quadrille - rumba - sucu-sucu - tango congo - yambú - yuba - yuka - zapateo aberikula - agogós - bandora - bandurria - batá - biankomé - bocú - bongo - bongó del monte - bonkoenchemiyá - botija - bulá - cajón - cajoncitos de velas - cajones de bacalao - catá - cencerro - chachá - chaworó - chekere - cheré - claves - conga - cornetas chinas - ekwé - efí - efó - enú - güiro - guagua - guataca - guayo - guitar - ilú - itótele - judíos batá - junga - kinfuiti - kuchí-yeremá - laud - maraca - marimbula - maruga - ngoma - nkembi - obí-apá - ogán - okónkolo - pailas - palito - premier - quinto - segón - segundo - sese eribó - tingo talango - tiple - tres - tumba - tumbadore abakuá - aché - arará - cabildo - Casa de la Trova - clave - comparsa - controversia - íremes - iyesá - ñáñigos - Palo - piquete - potencias - plantes - sandunga - Santeria - toque - trovadore - tumba francesca
Curaçao See Dutch Antillean - - -
Dominican Republic [4] bachata - gaga - jaleo - merengue - merengue típico cibaeño - perico ripiao merengue accordion - cuatro - güira - guayo - güiro - marimba - palo - tambora - vaksin misterios - velacione
Dutch Antillean        
French Antillean [5] biguine - chouval bwa - gwo ka - ti bwa bel-air - bele - calinda - grage - haut-taille - laghia - mazurka - quadrille bel-air - boula - chacha - markeur - tambour - twi ba lewoz
French Guianese [6] cassé-co      
Garifuna [7] paranda - punta   guitar - scraper - shaker  
Guatemalan [8]     marimba  
Haitian [9] kongo - ibo - mereng - méringue - quintolet - ra-ra - ti - yanvalou carabinier - chica - gragement - juba - menwat - méringue big - boula - graj - guitar - kóné - lanbi - mamman - marimba - mosquito drum - ogan - segon - shekere - tambou - tcha-tcha - vaksin bann rara - Haitian Carnival - majó jonk - Rada - Petwo - twoubadou - Vodou
Indo-Caribbean [10] bhajan - chowtal - tan   dantal - dholak - tabla - tassa phagwa - picong
Jamaican [11] baccra - burru - etu - gumbe - kumina - mento - nyabhingi - ring play - tambu mento banjo - bongo - fife - funde - guitar - kalimba jonkonnu - grounation - Pocomania - Revival Zion
Kuna [12]     gammu burui - guli  
Panamanian [13] copla - décima - gallina - llanto - mejorana - mesano - punto - saloma - tono - toque - torrente - valdivieso amanojá - bunde - congo - cumbia panameña - escobillado - llanero - mejorana - paseo - seguidilla - socavone - suelta - tamborito - zapateo - zapateado accordion - caja - churruca - flute - guitar - harmonica - maraca - mejorana - pujador - repicador - tambora - triangle - violin cantalante - tuna
Puerto Rican [14] aguinaldo - bomba - copla - danza - jíbaro - plena - requinto - seis - tipica bomba bomba - bongo - conga - cowbell - cuatro - güiro - maraca - pandereta - requinto - seguidora controversia - parranda - trovador
Surinamese [15] aleko - badji - kaseko - kawina - lonsei   djas - hari kawina - koti kawina - kwatro - papai benta - rattle - skratji - timbal ampuku - kumanti - obia pee - vodu - Winti
Trinidadian and Tobagan [16] bamboula - belair - calypso - gayap - juba - lavway - parang - steelpan calinda bandolin - bo - cuatro - dhantal - dholak - oméle - steelpan - tassa calypso tent - camboulay - chantwell - Jamette - j'ouvert - picong - Shango - Trinidadian Carnival

North America

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Aanishanabe See Ojibwa - - -
African American [17] blues - blues-harp - boat song - field holler - fife and drum band - freedom song - funereal music - gospel - lining out - shape-note - shout - spiritual - work song blues dance - hambone - juba dance - ring dance - shout banjo - bones - cowbell - diddly-bow - fiddle - harmonica - tambourine - washtub blue note - camp meeting - Election Day celebration - Great Awakening - Pinkster
Anglo-American [18] ballad - folk hymn - protest song - sea shanty - shape note - singing barn dance - country western two-step - longways - jig - reel - square dance fiddle - flute - guitar - harpsichord - violin caller - Shakers
Apache [19]     Apache fiddle - pot drum - water drum  
Appalachian [20] ballad - Blue Ridge fiddling - bluegrass - Child ballad - close harmony - folk hymn - jug band - lining out - North Georgia fiddling - old-time music - scolding ballad - shape note - singing - string band [21] clogging autoharp - banjo - cello - cornstalk fiddle - dulcimer - fiddle - flute - guitar - harmonica - mandolin folk revival - hillbilly
Arapaho [22] Ghost Dance - peyote song rabbit dance - round dance - snake dance - Sun Dance - turtle dance   Ghost Dance
Blue Ridge See Appalachian - - -
Cajun [23]   polka - two-step - waltz accordion - fiddle - guitar - spoons - triangle - washboard  
Cape Breton See Irish- and Scottish-Canadian - - -
Cherokee [24]   stomp dance    
Chickasaw [25]   stomp dance    
Chippewa See Ojibwa - - -
Choctaw [26]   stomp dance    
Cree [27]     fiddle  
Dakota See Sioux - - -
Dinéh See Navajo - - -
English-American See Anglo-American - - -
Finnish-American See Finnish - - -
French-American See French - - -
German- and Moravian-American [28] collegia musica - cornet band - Moravian funereal music - trombone choir   hautboy - kettle drum - trumpet - viol Ephrata Cloister - liederkranz - Singstude
Hopi See Pueblo - - -
Illinois [29]   calumet dance   berdache - calumet
Inuit [30] ayaya - kattajaq - pisiq - throat-singing drum dance - jig - kalattuut - reel accordion - drum angakkog
Irish- and Scottish-Canadian [31] ballad - Cape Breton fiddling - emigrant ballad - sean nos - shape note reel - step dance - strathspey fiddle ceilidh
Irish-American [32] ballad - emigrant ballad - sean nos clogging - hornpipe - jig - reel - step dance - square dance banjo - dulcimer - fiddle - guitar - harmonica - mandolin  
Iroquois [33]   Eagle Dance - Quiver Dance - Warrior's Stomp Dance drum - rattle - water drum  
Italian-American See Italy - - -
Japanese-American See Japanese - - -
Jewish-American [34] cantorial chant - klezmer bulgar - doina - freylekh - hora - khosidl - mazurka - nigun - polka - sirba - waltz cello - clarinet - double bass - flute - tsimbl - violin badkhn - Freygish - kapelye
Lakota See Sioux - - -
Louisiana Creole [35] la la - mellows - zydeco bamboula - ring dance accordion - fiddle - guitar - washboard Congo Square - fais-do-do
Maritime Canada [36] Cape Breton fiddling - milling song jig - reel accordion - fiddle - piano  
Menomini [37]     water drum  
Metis [38]     fiddle  
Mexican, Mejicano, Hispanic and Tejano [39] alabado - bravata - California mission music - conjunto - copla - corrido - estribillo - huapango arribeño - jarabe - letra - mariachi - Matachine - Mexican son - pirekua - son huasteco - sones abajeños - sones calentanos - sones de arpa grande - sones istmeños - sones jaliscienses - sones jarochos - topada - vallena - zandunga chotis - jarana - Matachine - mazurka - polka - raspa - redowa - waltz - xtoles - zandunga - zapateado accordion - angelus bell - bajo sexto - fiddle - harp - huapanguera - jarana - guitarra quinta - guitarrón - mission bell - requinto - vihuela - violin trovadore - vaquero
Moravian-American See German-American - - -
Navajo [40] gift song - signal song - sway song - Yeibichai Circle Dance - Squaw Dance pot drum - rattle - water drum Blessingway - Enemyway - Ghostway - hataali - hozho - Nightway - Yeibichai
New England [41] folk hymn - lining out - Old Way of Singing - psalmody - shape note barn dance    
Ojibwa [42] war song   water drum  
Omaha [43]   pipe dance    
Pueblo [44] Matachine - work song Matachine drum - flageolet Shalako
Quebecois [45] accord de pieds      
San Ildefonso See Pueblo - - -
Santo Domingo See Pueblo - - -
Scottish-Canadian See Irish- and Scottish-Canadian - - -
Sioux [46]   Grass Dance bell - drum - rattle  
Southern states [47] ballad - brass band - Delta blues - blues-harp - fife and drum band - folk hymn - jug band - Sacred Harp - shape note - Southern gospel - white spiritual barn dance - chicken in the breadtray - clogging - fisher's hornpipe - Highland fling - jig - lancer - pigeonwing - polka - quadrille - reel - square dance - waltz banjo - dulcimer - fiddle - guitar - harmonica - mandolin singing
Taos Pueblo See Pueblo - - -
Tejano See Mexican - - -
Tex-Mex See Mexican - - -
Tohono O'odham [48] chicken scratch (waila) - conjunto chotis - mazurka - polka - waila accordion - bass guitar - drum - fiddle - guitar piest
Ukrainian-American and Canadian See Ukrainian - - -
Western Canada and the United States [49] cattle call - cowboy song - frontier ballad - holler - waltz - Western swing - work song square dance accordion - banjo - fiddle - guitar - harmonica caller - Chisholm Trail - cowboy poetry - medicine show
Yaqui [50]   Danza del Venado    
Zuni See Pueblo - - -

South America

 

Country Elements Dance Instrumentation Other topics
Afro-Colombian [51] champeta contradanza - currulao - mazurka - polka drum - marimba - shaker  
Argentina [52] baguala - chamamé - cifra - folklorica - milónga - payada - tango - tonada - tunga-tunga [53] bataclán - chacareras - cuarteto - cueca - gato - milonga - tango - vidalita - zamba accordion - bandoneón - flute - guitar - guitarrón - harp - piano - violin candombé - compadrito - lunfardo
Aymara [54]     bombo - cajas - charango - kena - pinkillus - pitu - quena - siku - tarkas - wankara  
Bolivian [55]   bailecito - cueca - huayñitos    
Brazil[56] boi - Capoeira song - choro - frevo - literatura de cordel - maracatú - modinha - repentismo - samba baião - batuque - bloco - Capoeira - carimbó - cururu - fandango - forró - jongo - kankuku - lundu - maxixe - modinha - muñeres - samba - xango agogó - atabaque - berimbau - cavaquinho - clarinet - cuícas - pandeiros - piano - reco-recos - sanfona - surdos - tamborím - triangle - viola - violão Candomblé - Carnival - escolas de samba
Chilean [57]   chocolate - cueca - periconas - sirillas - tras trasera - valses chilotes    
Colombia [58] bambuco - contrapunteo - copla - cumbia - llanera - mapale - paseo - porro - puya - tambora - tonada - vallenato - vallenato conjunto - vallenato merengue bambuco - cumbia - currulao - joropo - porro accordion - bandola - bandolin - bass drum - bombardino - bombo - caja - capacho - carrizo - clarinet - cuatro - cymbal - flauto de millo - gaita - guacharaca - guache - guachos - harp - marimba - marimbula - pito - saxophone - snare drum - tambor hembra - tambor macho - tambora - tiple - trumpet - tuba  
Ecuador [59]   currulao bombo - marimba - panpipe  
Andean [60] huayno - marinera - rasgueado - vals criollo - yaraví punchay kashwa - huayno - incaico - sayas Andean harp - cajón - charango - guitarra - mandolin - panpipe - quena - tinya - vihuela - violin Indigenismo - payadore
Kallawaya [61] k'antu   arca - ira - ch'inisku - wankara - zampona  
Peruvian [62]   alcatraz - festejo - landó - marinera peruana    
Quechua [63] sanjuan - vacación huayno - sanjuan antara - charango - harp - kena - quena - violin golpeador - matrimonio - misai - wawa velorio
Sirionó [64]     None  
Suyá [65] akía   rattle  
Uruguay [66]   candombe    
Venezuelan [67] calipso - fulia - gaita - llanera - parranda - sangeo bamboleo - joropo - merengue - polo - tamunangue - waltz celoepuya - cuatro - furruco - harp - mandolin - maraca - mina - quitiplas - tambor  

References

  • Abel, E. Lawrence (2000). Singing the New Nation: How Music Shaped the Confederacy, 1861 - 1865. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0811702286.
  • Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds.) (2000). Rough Guide to World Music, First edition, London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1858286360.
  • Burk, Cassie, Virginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips (1942). America's Musical Heritage. Laidlaw Brothers.
  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: A History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 039304810.
  • Darden, Robert (2004). People Get Ready: A New History of Black Gospel Music. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0826414362.
  • Fussell, Fred C. (2003). Blue Ridge Music Trails: Finding a Place in the Circle. North Carolina Folklife Institute. ISBN 080785459X.
  • Lankford, Ronald D. Jr. (2005). The Changing Voice Music of Protest USA. ISBN 0825673003.
  • Leymarie, Isabelle (2002). Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz. London: Continuum. ISBN 0826465668.
  • Lornell, Kip (2004). NPR Curious Listener's Guide to American Folk. New York: Berkely Publisher Group. ISBN 0399530339.
  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. New York: Oxford University Press. 0195053427.
  • Music and Theater. Maryland History and Culture. URL accessed on September 12, 2005.
  • Ritchie, Fiona (2004). The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Celtic Music. New York: Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 039953071.
  • Philip V. Bohlman; Bruno Nettl, Charles Capwell, Thomas Turino and Isabel K. F. Wong (1997). Excursions in World Music, Second edition, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0132306328.
  • Nettl, Bruno (1965). Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Sawyers, June Skinner (2000). Celtic Music: A Complete Guide, First Edition, Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306810077.
  • Fujie, Linda, James T. Koetting, David P. McAllester, David B. Reck, John M. Schechter, Mark Slobin and R. Anderson Sutton (1992). Jeff Todd Titan (Ed.) Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, Second Edition, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0028726022.
  • van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0193161214.
  • International Dance Glossary. World Music Central. URL accessed on April 3, 2006.

Notes

  1. ^ Kaliss, "Junkanoo and Sloop John B.", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 317 - 324
  2. ^ Graham, Ronnie, "Drum'n'Flute Legacies", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 325 - 331
  3. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 28 - 29, 247; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 17 - 44; Turino, pg. 247; Fairley, Jan, "¡Que Rico Bailo Yo! How Well I Dance" and "Troubadours Old and New", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 386 - 407 and 408 - 413; Leymarie, pgs. 9 - 43; World Music Central
  4. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 42 - 44; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 97 - 115; Harvey, Sean and Sue Steward, "Merengue Attacks", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 414 - 420; World Music Central
  5. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 74; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 140 - 142; de Ledesma, Charles and Gene Scaramuzzo, "Dance-Funk Creole-Style", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 289 - 303; World Music Central
  6. ^ Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 221 - 231
  7. ^ Graham, Ronnie, "Drum'n'Flute Legacies", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 325 - 331
  8. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 178
  9. ^ Manuel, Popular Music, pg. 72; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 117 - 139; Harvey, Sean and Sue Steward, "Merengue Attacks" and "Compas Points", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 414 - 420 and pgs. 421 - 429; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pgs. 172, 176; World Music Central
  10. ^ Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 212 - 221
  11. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 74; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 143 - 180; World Music Central
  12. ^ Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427
  13. ^ Gallop, Nigel and Robin Broadbank, "Dancing Between the Oceans", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 477 - 480
  14. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 40 - 41; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 51 - 65; Sweeney, Philip, "Not Quite the 52nd State", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pg. 481 - 487; World Music Central
  15. ^ de Ledesma, Charles and Gene Scaramuzzo, "Dance-Funk Creole-Style", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 289 - 303; Turino, pg. 245; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 221 - 231
  16. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 79 - 80; Manuel, Caribbean Currents, pgs. 183 - 192
  17. ^ Darden, pgs. 8, 43 - 45, 48, 57; Broughton, Viv and James Attlee, "Devil Stole the Beat" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 568 - 579; Crawford, pgs. 107, 111 - 112, 409 - 411; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 96 - 97; van de Merwe; Titon, Jeff Todd, "North America/Black America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 106 - 166; Lornell, pgs. 75 - 77, 82 - 83
  18. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 202; Crawford, pgs. 70, 71, 157 - 158; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 11, 34; Lankford, pg. 117; Lornell, pgs. 65 - 67; World Music Central
  19. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603; McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  20. ^ Fussell, pgs. 3, 6 - 10; Ritchie, pgs. 52, 57; Barraclough, Nick and Kurt Wolff, "High an' Lonesome" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 536 - 551; Crawford, pg. 601; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 101 - 105; Lankford, pg. 38; Lornell, pgs. 15 - 17, 65 - 67, 82 - 83
  21. ^ There is some ambiguity in usage regarding some of these terms. Bluegrass, for example, is not generally considered folk music, but is often loosely categorized along with it, and is especially associated with the Appalachian style. The term old-time music is also ambiguous, and can refer to styles of folk music from outside the Appalachian area. The American folk revival was a musical field in the 1950s and 60s that drew on many styles of American folk music, especially Appalachian music; however, the folk revival itself produced much undebateably popular music and little or no true folk music, depending on the precise definition of that term used.
  22. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 150
  23. ^ Broughton, Simon and Jeff Kaliss, "Music Is the Glue", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 552 - 567; Lornell, pgs. 70 - 71
  24. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603
  25. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603
  26. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603
  27. ^ Foran, Charles, "No More Solitudes", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 350 - 361
  28. ^ Crawford, pgs. 53 - 55; Maryland Music and Theatre; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 30, 44
  29. ^ Crawford, pg. 10
  30. ^ Foran, Charles and Etienne Bours, "No More Solitudes" and "Sealskin Hits" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 350 - 361 and 143 - 145
  31. ^ Sawyers, pgs. 75 - 78, 194 - 198, 228 - 230
  32. ^ Sawyers, pgs. 62 - 67; 196 - 199, 208 - 290, 228 - 230
  33. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 161; McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66; McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  34. ^ Broughton, Simon, "Rhythm and Jews" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 581 - 591; Lornell, pgs. 77 - 78
  35. ^ Broughton, Simon and Jeff Kaliss, "Music Is the Glue", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 552 - 567; Crawford, pgs. 118 - 119; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pg. 99; Lornell, pgs. 87 - 88
  36. ^ Ritchie, pg. 54
  37. ^ McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  38. ^ Foran, Charles, "No More Solitudes", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 350 - 361
  39. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 54 - 56; Farquharson, Mary and Ramiro Burr, "Much More Than Mariachi" and "Accordion Enchilada", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 463 - 476 and pgs. 604 - 614; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pgs. 193 - 194; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 48 - 49, 52, 190 - 191; Lornell, pg. 22 - 23, 72 - 73, 78 - 79
  40. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 165; McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  41. ^ Crawford, pgs. 24 - 25; World Music Central
  42. ^ Crawford, pg. 391; McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  43. ^ Crawford, pg. 400
  44. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603; Crawford, pg. 8; Lornell, pg. 22 - 23
  45. ^ Foran, Charles, "No More Solitudes", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 350 - 361
  46. ^ McAllester, David P., "North America/Native America" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 16 - 66
  47. ^ Crawford, pgs. 162 - 164; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pg. 138; van de Merwe; Sawyers, pgs. 197, 208; Lankford, pgs. 38, 65 - 67, 75, 84 - 85; Abel, pgs. 132 - 134, 172; World Music Central
  48. ^ Means, Andrew, "Ha-Ya-Ya-, Weya Ha-Ya-Ya!", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 593 - 603; Lornell, pgs. 73 - 74
  49. ^ Crawford, pg. 430, 433 - 435, 609; Burk, Cassie, Wirginia Meierhoffer and Claude Anderson Phillips, pgs. 107, 187 - 189, 192 - 198; Lornell, pgs. 74 - 75, 85 - 86
  50. ^ World Music Central
  51. ^ Burton, Kim, "El Sonido Dorado" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 372 - 385
  52. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 59 - 60; Peiro, Teddy and Jan Fairley, "Vertical Expression of Horizontal Desire", and Fairley's "Dancing Cheek to Cheek", both in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 304 - 314 and 315 - 316; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 190; World Music Central
  53. ^ Though Fairley's essay places cuarteto and its tunga-tunga rhythm, and the modern folklorica trend, in a folk music context, their description indicates that all three topics are a largely modern subject, and may be more closely associated with popular than folk music.
  54. ^ Turino, pgs. 239 - 240; Fairley, Jan, "Beyond the Ponchos", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 273 - 288
  55. ^ World Music Central
  56. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pg. 64; Turino, pgs. 245 - 246; Cleary, David, "Meu Brasil Brasileiro", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 332 - 349; Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 191; World Music Central
  57. ^ Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427; World Music Central
  58. ^ Manuel, Popular Musics, pgs. 50 - 52; Turino, pg. 244; Burton, Kim, "El Sonido Dorado" in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 372 - 385; World Music Central
  59. ^ Turino, pg. 244; Fairley, Jan, "Beyond the Ponchos", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 273 - 288; Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427
  60. ^ Fairley, Jan, "Beyond the Ponchos" and "An Uncompromising Song", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 273 - 288, and pgs. 362 - 371
  61. ^ Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427
  62. ^ World Music Central
  63. ^ Turino, pgs. 239 - 240, 242; Fairley, Jan, "Beyond the Ponchos", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 273 - 288; Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427
  64. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 149
  65. ^ Turino, gp. 243
  66. ^ Nettl, Folk and Traditional Music, pg. 174
  67. ^ Sweeney, Philip and Dan Rosenberg, "Salsa Con Gasolina", in the Rough Guide to World Music, pgs. 624 - 630; Schechter, John M., "Latin America/Ecuador" in Worlds of Music, pgs. 376 - 427; World Music Central

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