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In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach.


Definitions of "indie"

The term "indie" is often used to mean a sound that a musician presents, but when interpreted more literally, it is the way that sound is presented or made. "Indie" often refers to an artist or band that is not part of the mainstream culture and/or making music outside its influence. Though the sound of these bands may differ greatly, the "indie" definition comes from the do-it-yourself attitude and ability to work outside large corporations.

Indie meaning "not major-label"

One of the most common and simplest definitions of "indie" is the definition of not being connected with a major recording label (currently one of the "Big Four" recording companies: Warner, Universal, Sony BMG and EMI). This is the definition used by NME's indie music charts in the UK, among others.

The problem with this definition is that there is often little correlation between the commerciality or creative freedom offered by major labels and those outside the "big four". Most of the larger independent labels are run along the same business principles as the major labels, with A&R departments, marketing budgets and commercial considerations guiding their operations. Meanwhile, major labels often retain independently-oriented artists who are given greater creative independence, and who receive considerable critical acclaim. Some notable major-label artists of this sort include Sonic Youth, Radiohead, Pulp, and The Flaming Lips.

Indie and commerciality

A more puristic structural definition of "indie" would draw the line further down, not between the "big 4" major labels and others but between the "big indie" labels and smaller labels, considered by purists to be true indie labels. These small labels are typically run by a few people, often out of their home or garage, and often coupled with a mail-order service representing other labels. The people running the labels have a close connection to a certain scene; many labels are run partially or wholly by musicians in bands on them. A concern for the purity of the creative mission of the label takes precedence over commercial concerns; many labels close down or go on hiatus when the owners lose interest or (as often happens) run out of money (or sometimes close down when the owners feel their mission has been fulfilled, as happened with Sarah Records). Archetypal examples of such labels include the aforementioned Sarah Records, Factory Records, Dischord, Kindercore Records, SST and Kill Rock Stars.

The converse of this are independent labels that have been perceived, rightly or wrongly, as being overly "commercial" or exploitative of certain artists or trends. Examples at various times include Fat Wreck Chords, Matador Records and Sub Pop. Epitaph was often the focus of similar accusations, however in 2005 label management signed an agreement with RIAA arguably making them no longer "independent".

Once again, this is not so much a dichotomy as a continuum; some labels grow from such independent status and gradually become more commercially oriented (often prompted by the success of one of their acts), eventually becoming subsumed by a larger conglomeration or a major label. One example of this was Creation Records, a label Alan McGee started in the 1980s on a small scale, which, in the 1990s had success with Oasis, subsequently becoming much more commercially oriented before being acquired by Sony.

Indie and genres

The word "indie" is often used to refer specifically to various genres or sounds. During the 1980s, "indie" was synonymous in Great Britain with jangly guitar pop of the C-86 movement. During the 1990s a lot of Britpop bands were referred to as "indie", despite most of the movement being signed to major labels and dominating sales charts. More recently, the word "indie" is sometimes used as a synonym for new wave revivalist bands such as Franz Ferdinand and The Killers and The Strokes. The word "indie" is sometimes used as a synonym for alternative, a word which often bears the stigma of being associated with cynically manufactured mass-market teen-rebellion music from major labels. Such usages of "indie" may be considered inaccurate for various reasons: for one, stylistic qualities are often not accurately correlated to commercial independence or adherence to indie principles (this is particularly true when a sound becomes popular, its leading exponents are signed by major labels and more success-oriented bands and production teams attempt to imitate the style; this ultimately culminates in commercially driven artists sporting the same stylistic traits the "indie" artists of a year ago had). Secondly, however pervasive any style of music (even one as broadly defined as "guitar pop" or "post-punk rock") may become at a particular time, it by definition cannot embody all of indie music, as, by indie's nature, there will be indie artists, labels and entire local scenes operating outside of this style and its definitions.

Cultural and philosophical attributes of indie

There are a number of cultural and philosophical traits which could be more useful in pinpointing what "indie" is about than specific musical styles or commercial ownership. Indie artists are concerned more with self-expression than commercial considerations (though, again, this is a stance that is affected by many artists, including hugely commercially successful ones). A do-it-yourself sensibility, which originated with punk in the 1970s, is often associated with indie, with people in the scene being involved in bands, labels, nights and zines. Indie often has an internationalist outlook, which stems from a sense of solidarity with other fans, bands and labels in other countries who share one's particular sensibilities; small indie labels will often distribute records for similar labels from abroad, and indie bands will often go on self-funded tours of other cities and countries, where those in the local indie scenes will invariably help organise gigs and often provide accommodation and other support. In addition, there is also a strong sense of camaraderie that emerges from a selflessness among indie bands and often results in collaborations and joint tours.

Indie artists of any particular time often go against the prevailing trends (for example, the twee pop movement that started in the 1980s was a reaction against the testosterone-fueled swagger of rock). A 'lo-fi' aesthetic (i.e., an often deliberate lack of polish and a more "authentic" roughness and imperfection) has often been associated with indie, particularly when slick, polished recordings were the preserve of the commercial music industry; this line has since become blurred, in a world where high-quality recordings can be made increasingly easily with inexpensive computer-based recording systems and where commercial production teams often deliberately utilize a "lo-fi" sound.

People into the indie lifestyle are commonly referred to as "indie kids", regardless of age; however, they do not often use that term for themselves. Other terms exist; the term "hipster" has, in recent years, become somewhat synonymous with this subculture.

Indie and technology

The concept of the album was first introduced with the invention of the phonograph. Artists became dependent on companies with capital because it was too expensive for an artist to produce and distribute an album themselves. Because of this, the choices offered to the public were decided by what the record companies chose to support and distribute. Today, technology is finally at the point where it is affordable for an artist to produce and distribute an album without the assistance of a label. Ironically, this same technology is available to consumers who can easily reproduce the music. This makes it increasingly difficult for an artist to make a living from selling albums alone.[1]

Internet technology allows artists to introduce their music to a potentially enormous audience at low cost without necessarily affiliating with a major recording label.[2] The design of digital music software encourages the discovery of new music. Sites with larger libraries of songs are the most successful. This, in turn, creates many opportunities for independent bands. Royalties from digital services could prove to be an important source of income. If an artist has already paid to record, manufacture, and promote their album, there is little to no additional cost for independent artists to distribute their music online.[3] Digital services offer the opportunity of exposure to new fans and the possibility of increased sales through online retailers. Artists can also release music more frequently and quickly if it is made available online. Additionally, artists have the option of releasing limited edition, out-of-print, or live material that would be too costly to produce through traditional means.

With the arrival of newer and relatively inexpensive recording devices and instruments, more individuals are able to participate in the creation of music than ever before. Studio time is extremely expensive and difficult to obtain. The result of new technology is that anyone can produce studio-quality music from their own home. Additionally, the development of new technology allows for greater experimentation with sound.[4] An artist is able to experiment without necessarily spending the money to do it in an expensive studio.

Most artists maintain their own Web sites as well as having a presence on sites such as Technological advances such as message boards, music blogs, and social networks are also being used by independent music companies to make big advances in the business.[5] Some sites, such as, rely on audience participation to rate a band, allowing listeners to have a significant impact on the success of a band. This eliminates new talent search and development, one of the most costly areas of the music business. Other sites allow artists to upload their music and sell it at a price of their choosing. Visitors to the site can browse by genre, listen to free samples, view artist information, and purchase the tracks they want to buy.[6] Acts such as Wilco have chosen to make their new albums available for streaming before they are released.[7]

However, the sale of digital music makes up only 5-10% of the total income generated from music sales. At this point, most people do not have broadband connections to the internet, making it relatively difficult for the general public to access music online. Many digital music services tend to focus overwhelmingly on major label acts. They donít necessarily have the time or resources to give attention to independent artists.[8] Currently, it is unlikely that a completely unknown artist would be able to sell a large number of records solely via the internet.

Subcategories of indie

There are several subcategories which music from the overall indie scene are often grouped broadly into. Music ranging from alternative rock to punk rock to experimental music has long existed in indie scenes, often independent from one another. Indie rock and indie pop are the most common groupings that conform to an "indie" sound. The difference between these is difficult to pick up from the instrumentation or sound, as both genres include distorted guitar-based music based on pop-song conventions. If anything, the key distinction comes not from instrumentation or structure but from how strictly they follow cultural constructions of rockist "authenticity". There is also indie dance, which comes from a fusion of indie pop and electronic/dance music. Crossover between electronica (mostly glitch) resulted in so-called indietronic, electronic indie or indie electronic, for example some artists on the German Morr Music label, or The Postal Service. Another type is post-rock, which includes bands like Explosions in the Sky, Mogwai, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, or Sigur Růs. The idea behind post-rock is that there are very few (if any) lyrics, yet the songs are long (sometimes upwards of 20 minutes), and the point of the songs are to paint an emotional landscape with just music and no words. Further expanding the original meaning of the term, when used in the independent sense, Blog-Rock has come to encapsulate the wave of upcoming artists in the mid-2000s.

Going major versus staying indie

Some bands choose to never go to a major label even if they are given the opportunity to so. A famous example were the legendary Anarcho punk band, Crass. Though this was as much out of necessity as a means of keeping their artistic and political vision intact, since they never had record executives knocking on their door to begin with. They set up their own label to protect themselves from co-option and provide a voice for like minded anarcho-punk artists.

If a band moves to a major label, it does not necessarily guarantee the band success. Only about 1 in 10 CDs released by major labels make any profit for the label.[9] It is possible for an artist to make more money producing and promoting their own CDs than signing with a major label. However, an independent label that is creatively productive is not necessarily financially lucrative. Independent labels are often one-or two-person operations with almost no outside assistance and run out of tiny offices.[10] This lack of resources can make it extremely difficult for a band to make revenue off of sales.

One thing an artist can consider doing if they want to be noticed by a major label is starting their own independent label. A successful independent label with a strong musical reputation can be very appealing to a major label. Major labels rely on independent labels to stay current within the ever-changing music scene.[11] Independent labels are often very good at discovering local talent and promoting specialized genres.

The difference among various independent labels lies with distribution, probably the most important aspect of running a label. A major-label distributed independent label allows the independent label to find, sign, and record their own artists. The independent label has a contract with a major label for promotion and distribution. In some cases, the major label also manufactures and releases the album. Independent labels that are owned by a major label distribute their records through independent distributors but are not purely independent. A purely independent label is not affiliated with a major label in any way. Their records are distributed through independent distributors.[12]

The three main ways for an artist to make money are record deals, touring, and publishing rights.

Major Label Contracts

Most major label artists earn a 10-15% royalty rate. However, before a band is able to receive any of their royalties, they must clear their label for all of their debts, known as recoupable expenses. These expenses arise from the cost of such things as album packaging and artwork, tour support, and video production. An additional part of the recoupable expenses are the artistís advance. An advance is like a loan. It allows the artist to have money to live and record with until their record is released. However, before they can gain any royalties, the advance must be paid back in full to the record label. Since only the most successful artists recoup production and marketing costs, an unsuccessful artistís debt carries over to their next album, meaning that they see little to no royalties.

Major label advances are generally much larger than what independent labels can offer. If an independent label is able to offer an advance, it will most like be somewhere in the range of $5,000-$125,000. On the other hand, major labels are able to offer artists advances in the range of $150,000-$300,000. Instead of offering an advance, some independent labels agree to pay for a certain amount of the artistís recording costs. This money is recoupable. There are advantages and disadvantages of an advance. If an artist gets no advance, that means they owe their record company less money, thus allowing them to earn royalties more quickly. However, since the label recoups so many costs, an artistís advance might be the only money they are able to make for quite some time.[13]

In a contract, options are agreed upon. Options allow the label to renew their contract with the artist and release more of their albums. Options lie with the label, and the label has the choice whether or not to record more with the artist. Some artists consider this unfair because the label has the right to not distribute an artistís project and extend their contract by one more album if they deem the music as commercially or artistically unacceptable. Record labels effectively own the artistís product for the duration of their contract.[14]

Independent Label Contracts

Many times, a deal from an independent label is quite similar to that of a major label. In cases where an independent label is distributed by a major label, the independent label itself will have to have a major-label deal. In this case, the independent label would want to be sure that their contract with their artists covers the same issues as the independentís own contract with the major label. In other cases, independent labels offer similar contracts to major labels because they want to look more professional. An independent label that thinks it will eventually be dealing frequently with major labels will have a similar contract in order to avoid having to redraft contracts in the future. There are also plenty of cases in which independent labels have contracts that do not resemble major label contracts in any way. In general, independent labels that are not affiliated with a major label are more willing to take chances and are able to be more flexible in their deals.

Though some independent labels offer a royalty rate of 10-15% like the major labels, it is becoming increasingly more common for independent labels to offer a profit-sharing deal in which as much as 40-75% of the net profits go to the artist. In this type of contract, the net gain after all expenses have been taken out are split between the label and artist by a negotiated percentage. However, deals in this form can take longer for an artist to gain any profits since all expenses Ė such as manufacturing, publicity, and marketing Ė are also taken into account. As an independent artist becomes more popular, deals of this type are more advantageous.

Independent labels often rely heavily on free goods, or the records that are given away in promotion of an album. Artists do not receive royalties on merchandise that is given away for free. Additionally, since compilations made by independent labels are often given away, the artist receives no royalties. Major label compilations are more often sold than given away, and the artist does receive royalties.


When a band goes on tour, it may or may not have the financial backing of its label. An artist receives a fixed fee or a percentage of the tickets sold by the venue owner or promoter. Touring is an expensive process. A moderate estimate of touring costs with a bus and small crew can easily reach $15,000 a week. If an artist tours with the support of their label, the expenses are all recoupable, thus potentially increasing a bandís debt. Many successful bands tour without the support of their label so that they can keep all of their touring revenue. An independent band would have more difficulty than a highly successful one in being self-sufficient on tour.


If a band or artist writes their own material, publishing can be one of the best ways to earn a profit. It is one of the only guaranteed ways to earn revenue for artists. Even touring is not a sure way to make money because it is possible that no one will attend the shows. Basic United States copyright law protects songwriters by giving them exclusive rights to grant or deny the reproduction, distribution, or performance of their work. The majority of a bandís publishing income comes from its mechanical and performance rights. Mechanical rights cover the reproduction of a song on a record. In the standard contract between a band and a label, the label is required by law to pay the composer a fixed rate per song simply for the right to use the composition on commercially sold recordings. The mechanical licensing rate for the U.S. and Canada is 7.1 cents per song.[15] With the performance rights, a songís copyright covers every time it appears on radio and television.

If an artist prefers to receive up-front money for their songs instead of waiting for the money to come in over time, it can choose to assign its copyright to a music publisher. The music publisher pays a cash advance for what they decide is the value of the copyright. It is common for a band to sign a copublishing deal. This means that the publisher offers the artist an advance in exchange for half the publishing income. When the advance is paid back, the music publisher retains 25% of the income. Since an artist has no guarantees whether or not their song will be popular, some may prefer to have a cash advance that guarantees them money regardless of how well the song does.

Indie scenes in North America

"Scenes" are localized music-oriented communities that exist in many cities, especially in the U.S. and Canada. These have existed for decades now, in one way or another, but it is now commonplace for a city or town to have a punk scene, a metal scene, or many other scenes based on other forms of art. Indie music scenes became important in the early 1980s, when the rest of the country caught up with punk rock music from New York and London. Scenes are important in keeping indie and punk rock fresh and inventive, because it allows people from a wide audience to hear new independent music and contribute their own talents to it. Obviously, depending on what town one is in, the feel of the scene (and therefore the music that comes out of it) may change significantly.

Arguably, the 1980s indie scene in Washington D.C. was pivotal in changing the outcome of punk and indie rock for decades to come. Bands like Minor Threat, the Bad Brains, Fugazi, and Rites of Spring helped to shape the sound of underground music for years to come. Los Angeles was important around this time as well, producing bands like the Descendents, Bad Religion, and Black Flag.

Around the mid-1980s, as punk and New-Wave's mainstream influence died down considerably, there rose a couple of other important movements. Minneapolis was very important around this time. Bands like HŁsker DŁ, and the Replacements would influence many alternative bands after them. People involved in these bands, such as Bob Mould and Paul Westerberg still contribute to the music scene today. During the late 1980s in the Bay Area of California, bands like Operation Ivy, Green Day, The Offspring, and later, Rancid would take form to give a new sound to punk rock. On the opposite end of the country, Frank Black, Kim Deal, and Kristin Hersh were forming bands like the Pixies, Throwing Muses, and eventually The Breeders. These bands would influence the next wave of alternative rock, which due to the massive mainstream success of grunge became divided into mainstream artists and a new wave of indie rock bands who rejected the mainstream in favor of the indie scene.

Canadian indie scenes

  • Montreal: Home to a very well developed indie scene, merging influences from Canada, France, the U.K., and the United States in one city. Some publications such as Pitchfork Media are now claiming Montreal as North America's indie rock capital, due to bands such as The Arcade Fire, The Unicorns, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, Stars and Wolf Parade.
  • Toronto: Home to the NXNE (North by Northeast) festival, which is based on the more popular SXSW festival in Austin . The city is also home to indie record label Arts & Crafts as well as supergroup Broken Social Scene.
  • Vancouver: Home of the much revered Frog Eyes, Destroyer (Dan Bejar), The New Pornographers, and Black Mountain.

American indie scenes


  • Athens, Georgia: Known for being the birthplace of R.E.M., The B-52's, and Pylon, with much of the scene focused around the famed 40 Watt Club. In later years, the area spawned many member bands of the Elephant Six collective, including Neutral Milk Hotel, Olivia Tremor Control, and Of Montreal. While perhaps indie only in the "status" sense, Athens was also the home to the jam band Widespread Panic and producer/remixer Danger Mouse.
  • Bloomington, Indiana: Bloomington, Indiana is the home of Indiana University's Jacobs School of Music. The school and the surrounding areas have produced numerous indie bands of note with DIY Punk influences, including Acoustic Folk-Punk bands Defiance, Ohio (band), This Bike Is a Pipe Bomb, Ghost Mice, all of which have recorded on Plan It X Records and play at the annual Plan It X Fest. Other remarkable artists includeMatty Pop Chart (Matt Tobey), and his sister Erin Tobey. Both Matt and Erin have recorded with [Plan It X Records]] as solo artists and also as members of Abe Froman (band). Lo-fi musician Elephant Micah, from Richmond, Indiana, resides in Bloomington.
  • Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Has had a strong indie rock scene since the 1980s. With three major colleges (UNC-Chapel Hill, N.C. State University and Duke University) in its vicinity, the area has been fertile ground for music. In the 1980s, the region saw the debut of bands like The Connells. Bands such as Superchunk, the Squirrel Nut Zippers, Archers of Loaf, Polvo, and Southern Culture on the Skids formed the core of the indie scene in the area in the 1990s. (The Ben Folds Five got their start in the area, as well, albeit slightly removed from the main indie scene.) Much of the activity in the scene focused on longtime indie club the Cat's Cradle (which relocated to adjacent Carrboro in 1993). Labels also emerged in the area, including Merge Records, founded by members of Superchunk, and the now-defunct Mammoth Records.
  • Chicago: Chicago has become known for indie rockers following in the paths of the Smashing Pumpkins, Urge Overkill, Wilco, and the Jesus Lizard; bands like Califone, Ok Go, and Umphrey's McGee hail from the city. Matthew and Eleanor Friedberger of The Fiery Furnaces, who now reside in Brooklyn, New York are originally from Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Chicago is also home to many independent labels like Thrill Jockey, Drag City, and others, and to the popular music-news website Pitchfork Media.
  • Murfreesboro, Tennessee: About forty minutes south of Nashville, Murfreesboro is a current hotbed for college music. The town is home to Middle Tennessee State University's Recording Industry program in the Mass Communications department. The most notable band to make it from this scene, is the band Self. Their most successful single was "Cannon" from the Subliminal Plastic Motives album, which was released on Spongebath Records in 1995. Spongebath was the heart of the scene and was eventually bought out by Dreamworks Nashville (music division of Dreamworks S.K.G. started by David Geffen), the Spongebath label went under after mis-management of their finances (rumor has it). Dreamworks Nashville was eventually sold off to Universal Music, due to lack of revenue from the label.
  • Newark, Delaware: The home of Jade Tree Records, formed in 1990 by Tim Owen and Darren Walters. Jade Tree started with bands such as Railhed, Walleye, Lifetime, and the short-lived DC band, Swiz. The label sat in obsecurity for about 5 years until signing The Promise Ring in 1996. Since, Jade Tree has released countless albums from many staples of the indie rock scene. Today, Newark, Delaware and surrounding areas has become a hotbed for traveling independent bands, with one notable punk rock venue, The Harmony Grange, which has hosted shows for over 5 years now. While not producing too many memorable acts in the past, Delaware has a notable music scene growing around the University of Delaware campus, and surrounding areas.
  • New York City: (notably the neighborhood of Williamsburg, Brooklyn): Always a contender, it has been cited as a major scene for recent indie rock music with such bands as The Walkmen, TV on the Radio, Interpol, and The Strokes.
  • Washington, DC: The DC area has also re-emerged as a hotbed of indie music. The area gained notoriety in the 1980s when it became one of the flagship cities of the American hardcore punk movement, with bands such as Minor Threat, Government Issue and Rites of Spring. All of these bands were on Minor Threat frontman Ian MacKaye's own record label, Dischord Records. Several newer bands have gained popularity since the rise of MacKaye's later band Fugazi, including Q and Not U, Black Eyes, Decahedron, Dead Meadow, and The Evens, Make Up: Who have inspired many local DC bands such as pg. 99, Crestfallen, Haram, Reactor No. 7, Majority Rule and many others who are all just as equal and talented because they're all helping make the Washington, DC area a major factor in the indie rock movement thats been growning since the 1960's throughout all of Northern America and largly the world over. and many others.


  • Denver, Colorado: Known for producing the Elephant Six Collective, a group of indie pop bands, including The Apples in Stereo and Dressy Bessy. Denver also has produced a scene sometimes labeled "country gothic" [1], [2] for its stark combinations of American country and gospel music with unusual or morbid lyrical themes. The approach ranges from solemn, sometimes wrenching religious contemplation by 16 Horsepower, twisted Americana murder ballads by Munly, to rollicking, drunken, apocalyptic Southern gospel by Slim Cessna's Auto Club, all of whom have released albums on Jello Biafra's Alternative Tentacles Records.
  • Omaha, Nebraska: As of 2000, many new scenes are appearing on the radar in Middle America; all with unique sounds. One is the Omaha-based Saddle Creek Records, home to several highly regarded indie rock acts such as Bright Eyes and Cursive. Bright Eyes singer/songwriter and Omaha native Conor Oberst, who started the label, has been called the "King of Indie Rock" by Rolling Stone magazine, although his "indie cred" is often less than high.


  • Los Angeles: The L.A. indie scene rides the wave of gentrification through Eastside neighborhoods like Koreatown, Silverlake, and Echo Park, which have given rise to such bands as Moving Units, Autolux, and Giant Drag.
  • Portland, Oregon: Relatively recently has become a hot spot for indie bands, being the home of such acts as The Decemberists, The Shins, The Dandy Warhols, and the late Elliott Smith.
  • San Diego: In the past, it has bred its fair share of influential bands such as The Locust, The Black Heart Procession, and The Album Leaf.
  • Seattle: The Seattle scene became popular in the early 1990s, when bands like Nirvana, Soundgarden, Alice In Chains, Pearl Jam and the Screaming Trees had immense success with their music. This was unique since it signaled the first time in a long time that punk-influenece rock had become once again in vogue with the masses. Bands such as Pixies and Sonic Youth, who were not given much mainstream credibility up to this point, found themselves adored by new fans. Currently, Seattle could be considered to have the most influential indiepop scene in the world. Indiepop super group Death Cab For Cutie launched indiepop into the attention of mainstream America with their newest album "Plans".


  • Austin, Texas: Host of the annual SXSW (South By South West) festival that showcases a large variety of independent artists across many different venues in the city. Known for SXSW, many often overlook Austin as a local indie scene yet it is home to MIsra Records and many indie artists. Austin, Texas has given the indie rock scene Spoon, ...And You Will Know Us by the Trail of Dead, Jeff Klein, Zykos, Voxtrot, and Shearwater. While not the largest indie scene it is a prominent indie hotspot.
  • Denton, Texas: In the last 20 years Denton's music culture has grown beyond the rigorous and disciplined world of University of North Texas' College of Music. In 2004 and 2005, the roster of the town's performing and touring indie music acts remained between 90 and 100, a high number considering the town's 2000 U.S. census population figure of only 80,537 people. Notable indie bands from Denton include: Lift to Experience, Centro-Matic, Brutal Juice, the Baptist Generals, Midlake, the Marked Men, South San Gabriel, and Bosque Brown. Denton's music culture makes the smaller town Texas' only other city, outside of Austin, that could claim such a title as music town, a reflection of city's own creative and progressive dominant cultural base.

Genres associated with indie

See also


External links

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This guide is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.

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