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Disc jockey

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A disc jockey "scratching" a record. A disc jockey "scratching" a record.

A disc jockey (also called DJ, or dee'jay) is an individual who selects and plays prerecorded music for an intended audience.

Contents

Origin of term

The term was first used to describe radio announcers who would introduce and play popular gramophone records. These records, also called discs by those in the industry were jockeyed by the radio announcers, hence the name disc jockey and soon to be known as DJs or deejays. Today there are a number of factors, including the selected music, the intended audience, the performance setting, the preferred medium, and the development of sound manipulation, that have led to different types of deejays.

Job description

The physical act of selecting and playing sound recordings is called deejaying, or DJing, and ranges in sophistication from simply playing a series of recordings (referred to as programming, or composing a playlist), to the manipulating of recordings, using techniques such as audio mixing, cueing, phrasing, cutting, scratching, and beatmatching, often to the point of creating original musical compositions. It should be noted that the term "DJ" in Jamaican dancehall culture refers to the performer (elsewhere known as MC) who inserts live ad lib raps or "toasts" over dub instrumental recordings played by the "selector", here described as a "DJ".

Equipment

The most basic equipment that is necessary for a standard disc jockey to perform consists of the following: 1. sound recordings in preferred medium (eg. vinyl records, compact discs, mp3s) 2. at least two devices for playback of sound recordings, for the purpose of alternating back and forth to create continuous playback (eg. record players, compact disc players, mp3 players) 3. a sound system for amplification of the recordings (eg. portable audio system, radio wave broadcaster)

The addition of a DJ mixer (used to mix the sound of the two playback devices), a microphone (used to amplify the human voice), and headphones (used to listen to one recording while the other is playing, without outputting the sound to the audience) is strongly recommended, but not required. Other types of equipment can also be added, including samplers, drum machines, effects processors, and Computerized Performance Systems.

Techniques

There are several techniques that can be applied by the disc jockey as a means to manipulate the prerecorded music. These include audio mixing, cueing, slip-cueing, phrasing, cutting, beat juggling, scratching, beatmatching, needle drops, phase shifting, and more.

DJ control and economics

Throughout the 1950s, payola was an ongoing problem. Part of the fallout from that payola scandal was tighter control of the music by station management. The Top 40 format also emerged, where popular songs are played repeatedly.

Today, very few radio DJs in the United States have any control over what is played on the air. Playlists are very tightly regulated, and the DJ is often not allowed to make any changes or additions. The songs to be played are usually determined by computerized algorithms, and automation techniques such as voice tracking have allowed single DJs to send announcements across many stations. Even song requests are sometimes co-opted into this system — a song might be announced as a request by a DJ even though it was already set to appear in the playlist.

Economically, this formula has been successful across the country. However, music aficionados look upon such practices with disgust and either seek out freeform stations that put the DJs back in control, or end up dumping terrestrial radio in favor of satellite radio services or portable music players like iPods. College radio stations and other public radio outlets are the most common places for freeform playlists in the U.S.

Types of disc jockeys

By definition, the role of selecting and playing prerecorded music for an intended audience is the same for every disc jockey. The selected music, the audience, the setting, the preferred medium, and the level of sophistication of sound manipulation are factors that create a number of different types of deejays.

The following is a list of the most common types of disc jockeys, along with notable examples of each, listed in chronological order by birth.

Radio DJs

A radio disc jockey is one that selects and plays music that is broadcast across radio waves.

Notable Radio DJs

Christopher Stone (1882–1965), became the first disc jockey in the United Kingdom in 1927.
Martin Block (1901-1967), the first radio disc jockey to become a star, inspired the term "disc jockey".
Alan Freed (1922-1965), became internationally known for promoting African-American Rhythm and Blues music in the United States and Europe under the name of Rock and Roll.
Murray "The K" Kaufman (1922-1982), influential rock and roll disc jockey, for a time was billed as the "Fifth Beatle".
Jimmy Savile (born 1926), British DJ and television personality, best known for his BBC television show Jim'll Fix It where he made the wishes of members of the public (mainly children) come true. In 1947 he was the first ever DJ to use twin turntables for continuous play after he paid a local metal worker to weld two domestic record decks together.
Dick Clark (born 1929), host of American Bandstand, television's longest-running music/variety program, as well as a number of nationally syndicated radio shows.
Casey Kasem (born 1932), disc jockey and music historian, host of the long-running radio series American Top 40. Also the voice of Shaggy in the Scooby-Doo cartoon series.
"The Real Don Steele" (1936-1997), Los Angeles' pre-eminent "afternoon drive" personality and the Bossest of the "Boss Jocks" of LA's Top 40 powerhouse KHJ-AM - "Boss Radio" - during the 1960s.
Wolfman Jack (1938-1995), drew upon his love of horror movies and rock and roll to create his raspy-voiced, howling persona, one of radio’s most distinctive voices.
John Peel (1939-2004), one of the original DJs of UK's Radio 1 in 1967, known for the extraordinary range of his taste in music, and for championing unknown musical artists.
Colin Davies (born 1946), known as The Professor of Rock, broadcasts a weekly show from Fairfax, Virginia that is carried on the website www.theprofessorrocks.com. The Professor's specialty is early rock'n'roll - Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Gene Vincent, Fats Domino - and his show receives emailed requests from rock'n'roll fans from all over the world.
Jim Ladd (born 1948), the last remaining freeform rock DJ in United States commercial radio.
Pete Tong (born 1960). First club DJ to get a regular show on Radio 1 in 1991, called The Essential Mix.

Bedroom DJs

A person who owns DJing equipment (ie. turntables, mixer, CDJ, etc.) and has a passion for music, but doesn't play out to crowds at bars or special events (ie. raves). Instead, they opt to play their music at home for their friends, record mixtapes or over the internet via audio broadcasting software, such as SHOUTcast.

Club/Rave DJs

A club/rave disc jockey is one that selects and plays music in a club setting. The setting can range anywhere from a small club, a neighborhood party, a disco, a rave, or even a stadium.

Notable Club/Rave DJs

DJ Paul Oakenfold DJ Paul Oakenfold

David Mancuso (born 1944), founder of New York City's first underground party called The Loft.
Francis Grasso (1948-2001), popularized several new disc jockey techniques, including beatmatching and slip-cueing.
Larry Levan (1954-1992), an early and prolific re-mixer and the DJ at The Paradise Garage
Frankie Knuckles (born 1955), the godfather of house music.
DJ Starscream aka Sid Wilson, the DJ for Slipknot.
Paul Oakenfold (born 1963), British record producer, remixer, and one of the best-known DJs worldwide, referred to as a Superstar DJ.
Tiesto (born 1969), one of world's leading trance music DJs, voted DJ Magazine's 'No. 1 DJ in the World' for the third consecutive year in 2004.
Keoki (born 1969), famous techno musician, portrayed in the 2003 film Party Monster.
Paul van Dyk (born 1971) a famous trance DJ who earned "DJ Magazine"'s 2005 No. 1 DJ award.
Armin van Buuren (born 1976), a popular trance DJ who placed 3rd place on the "DJ Mag Top 100" ranking three times in a row; also known for his radio show A State of Trance

Hip Hop DJs

Main article: Turntablism

A hip hop disc jockey is one that selects, plays and creates music as a hip hop artist and/or performer, often backing up one or more MCs.

Notable Hip Hop DJs

The X-Ecutioners, a turntablist band with several collaborations with groups and artists, including Linkin Park and Xzibit.
DJ Kool Herc (born 1955), inventor of breakbeat technique, "the father of hip hop culture".
Grandmaster Flash (born 1958), one of the early pioneers of hip hop DJing, cutting, and scratching. Created the Quick Mix Technique which allowed a DJ to precisely extend a break using two copies of the same record; essentially invented modern turntablism.
Afrika Bambaataa (born 1960), instrumental in the development of hip hop from its birth in the South Bronx to its international success. Created first hip hop track to feature synthesizers; "The godfather of hip hop"
DJ Jazzy Jeff (born 1965), of DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince (also backed Will Smith on his solo efforts)
Jam Master Jay (1965-2002), founder and DJ of Run-DMC, one of the most innovative hip hop groups of all time.
DJ Clue (born Ernesto Shaw on January 8, 1975 in Queens, New York City) is a mix DJ known for his involvement in the mixtape circuit. He is signed as an artist on Roc-A-Fella Records
Eric B. (born 1965), one half of duo Eric B. & Rakim, popularized the James Brown-sampled funky hip hop of the late 1980s.
Terminator X (born 1966), DJ of the highly infuential hip hop group Public Enemy.
DJ Qbert (born 1969), founding member of the turntablism group the Invisibl Skratch Piklz and three-time winner of the International DMC Award.
Mix Master Mike (born 1970), skilled DJ of hip hop group Beastie Boys, three-time winner of the International DMC Turntablism Award.

Reggae DJs

In reggae terms, the DJ is traditionally a vocalist who would rap, toast, or chat with an instrumental record.

Mobile DJs

Mobile disc jockeys are an extension of the original radio disc jockeys. Unlike their radio counterparts, mobile DJing is primarily seen as a part-time or second career. Although it is often perceived this way, there are many mobile DJs around the world that use this as their primary career.

Mobile DJs travel or tour with their own sound systems and play from an extensive collection of pre-recorded music, on various media, for a targeted audience. Mobile DJs tend to work for hire at private functions such as wedding receptions, bar and bat mitzvah receptions, school dances, and so on, but they can occasionally be seen in bars, nightclubs, or even block parties. Unlike many club/rave DJs, mobile DJs often play more mainstream selections of music from multiple genres and they often take requests.

The definition and responsibilities of a mobile disc jockey have changed since Bob Casey's first two-turntable system for continuous playback was utilized for sock-hops in 1955. Bands had long dominated the wedding entertainment industry, but with the advent of the less expensive mobile DJ, the demand for live performers dwindled. Even so, in the early years, the mobile DJ industry was seen as a last-resort choice for entertainment, as the DJs were reputed to frequently be unreliable and unprofessional. Mobile DJs companies came and went. However, a few companies of this era did establish themselves as competent businesses and thrived; some even still exist today.

During the Disco era of the 1970s, demand for mobile DJs (called mobile discos in the UK) soared. Top mobile DJs in this era would have hundreds of vinyl records and/or cassette tapes to play from. The equipment used in this era was enormous and usually required roadies (similar to those who work for bands) to set up. Because of the high demand for mobile DJs, many people from all facets of life jumped into the industry, hoping to make a few extra dollars on the weekends. These "Weekend Warriors", as they are called by many, helped enhance the negative stereotype of the mobile DJ; many of the same complaints from the earlier era continued.

Some tried to improve this image by forming professional associations. The Canadian Disc Jockey Association (CDJA) was one of the original associations formed in 1976 as a not-for-profit trade association for disc jockeys across Canada. It was joined by a much broader online association called the Canadian Online Disc Jockey Association (CODJA), founded by Canadian mobile DJs Glenn Miller (not the famous bandleader) and Dennis Hampson.

United States Disc Jockeys were reluctant to form anything similar until 1992 when the American Disc Jockey Association (ADJA) was incorporated. The original Board of Directors were Bruce Keslar, Maureen Keslar, John Roberts, and Lori Jesse. In 1996, after being removed from the ADJA Board from a financial dispute, Keslar then went on to form the for-profit National Association of Mobile Entertainers (NAME), based in the Philadelphia area. Both associations thrive today, with an estimated 5,000 members combined as of November 2005.

As the late 1980s turned into the 1990s, new technologies emerged. Compact disc collections were becoming the standard to play music from. Many equipment manufacturers realized the potential market that existed for mobile DJs and raced to make equipment that was smaller, easier to use, and of better quality. Dedicated mobile disc jockey trade publications such as DJ Times magazine and Mobile Beat magazine were founded in this era. These publications helped to spread the word about the emerging technologies and published informational articles that were helpful to the mobile disc jockey. This is also the era when mobile disc jockeys became the top entertainment choice for most private parties including wedding receptions.

In the mid-1990s, computers and the Internet had a profound impact on the mobile DJ industry. Professor Jam, a Tampa Bay, Florida disc jockey already known in the industry for having performed for many celebrities and television networks, became one of the first mobile DJs in the United States to regularly use computer technology to play music at his shows, and was the first professionally endorsed computer disc jockey internationally. CODJA cofounder Glenn Miller became the first licensed MP3 DJ under new music licensing agreement that was introduced to Canada in 2000 by the AVLA, and had already pioneered online networking for mobile disc jockeys by starting the first bulletin board system for mobile DJs from all over North America (and eventually the world).[1]

In the 21st Century, the role of the mobile disc jockey has expanded. While there are still many conventional, "human jukebox" mobile DJs, many others have assumed more reponsibilities to ensure the success of the events where they perform. These responsibilities include emceeing, event coordination, lighting direction, and sound engineering.

The number of resources available for mobile DJs has also expanded. Aside from the many online community forums, there are now annual conventions, regional conferences, and many local seminars for mobile disc jockeys to attend.

Notable Mobile DJs

  • In 1955, Bob Casey (born 1941), a well-known sock hop DJ, introduced the first two-turntable system for the purpose of alternating back and forth between records, creating continuous playback.
  • UK MPs Michael Fabricant (aka Micky Fabb) and Richard Younger-Ross (aka Ricky Ross).

Timeline of events related to the disc jockey

1857 - Leon Scott invents the phonoautograph, the first device to record arbitrary sound, in France.
1877 - Thomas Alva Edison invents the phonograph cylinder, the first device to playback recorded sound, in the United States.
1887 - German-American Emile Berliner invents the gramophone, a lateral disc device to record and playback sound.
1889 - Coin-slot phonograph machines, the general public's first encounter with recorded sound, begin to be mass produced. The earliest versions played only a single record, but multiple record devices, called jukeboxes, were soon developed.
1892 - Emile Berliner begins commercial production of his gramophone records, the first disc record to be offered to the public.
mid-1890s to early 1920s - Cylinder and disc recordings, and the machines to play them on, are widely mass marketed and sold. The disc system gradually becomes more popular due to its cheaper price and better marketing.
1906 - Reginald Fessenden transmits the first audio radio broadcast in history when he plays Christmas music from Brant Rock, Massachusetts.
1910s - Regular radio broadcasting begins, using "live" as well as prerecorded sound. In the early radio age, content typically includes comedy, drama, news, music, and sports reporting. The on-air announcers and programmers would later be known as disc jockeys.
1920s - "Juke-joints" become popular as a place for dancing and drinking to jukebox music.
1927 - Christopher Stone becomes the first radio announcer and programmer in the United Kingdom, on the BBC radio station.
1929 - Thomas Edison ceases phonograph cylinder manufacture, ending the disc and cylinder rivalry.
1934 - American commentator Walter Winchell coins the term "disc jockey" (the combination of "disc", referring to the disc records, and "jockey", which is an operator of a machine) as a description of radio announcer Martin Block, the first announcer to become a star in his own right. While his audience was awaiting developments in the Lindbergh kidnapping, Block played records and created the illusion that he was broadcasting from a ballroom, with the nation’s top dance bands performing live. The show, which he called Make Believe Ballroom, was an instant hit.
1940s - Musique concrète composers utilize portions of sound recordings to create new compositions. This is the first occurrence of sampling.
1943 - Jimmy Savile launches the world's first DJ dance party by playing jazz records in the upstairs function room of the Loyal Order of Ancient Shepherd's in Otley, England. in 1947 he paid a local metal worker to weld two domestic record decks together and became the first DJ to use twin turntables for continuous play.
1947 - The "Whiskey-A-Go-Go" nightclub opens in Paris, France, considered to be the world's first discothèque, or disco (deriving its name from the French word, meaning a nightclub where the featured entertainment is recorded music rather than an on-stage band). Discos began appearing across Europe and the United States.
late 1940s to early 1950s - The introduction of television erodes the popularity of radio's early format, causing it to take on the general form it has today, with a strong focus on music, news and sports.
1950s - American radio DJs would appear live at "sock hops" and "platter parties" and assume the role of a human jukebox. They would usually play 45-rpm records featuring hit singles on one turntable, while talking between songs. In some cases, a live drummer was hired to play beats between songs to maintain the dance floor.
1955 - Bob Casey, a well-known sock hop DJ, introduces the first two-turntable system for the purpose of alternating back and forth between records, creating continuous playback.
late 1950s - Jamaican sound systems, a new form of public entertainment, are developed in the ghettos of Kingston, Jamaica. Promotors, who called themselves DJs, would throw large parties in the streets that centered around the disc jockey, called the "selector". These parties quickly became profitable for the promoters, who would sell admission, food and alcohol, leading to fierce competition between DJs for the biggest sound systems and newest records.
mid-1960s - Nightclubs and discotheques continue to grow in Europe and the United States. However, by 1968, the number of dance clubs started to decline.
1969 - American club DJ Francis Grasso popularizes beatmatching at New York's Sanctuary nightclub. Beatmatching is the technique of creating seamless transitions between back-to-back records with matching beats, or tempos. Grasso also perfected slip-cueing, the technique of holding a record still while the turntable is revolving underneath, releasing it at the desired moment to create a sudden transition from the previous record.
late 1960s - Most American discos either closed or were transformed into clubs featuring live bands. Neighborhood block parties that are modeled after Jamaican sound systems gain popularity in Europe and in the boroughs of New York City.
early 1970s - The Vietnam War, oil crisis, and economic recession has a negative impact on dance clubs and disc jockeys. The total number of clubs and DJs dropped substantially, and most of the dance clubs were underground gay discos. It should also be noted that electronics company Technics released a series of direct-drive DJ turntables during this period.
1973 - Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, widely regarded as the "godfather of hip hop culture", performs at block parties in his Bronx neighborhood and develops a technique of mixing back and forth between two identical records to extend the rhythmic instrumental segment, or break. Turntablism, the art of using turntables not only to play music, but to manipulate sound and create original music, is considered to begin at this time.
1974 - Technics releases the first SL-1200 turntable, which evolves into the SL-1200 MK2 in 1979, currently the industry standard for deejaying.
1974 - German electronic music band Kraftwerk releases the 22-minute song "Autobahn", which takes up the entire first side of that LP. Years later, Kraftwerk would become a significant influence on hip hop artists such as Afrika Bambaataa and house music pioneer Frankie Knuckles.
mid 1970s - Hip hop music and culture begins to emerge, originating among urban African Americans and Latinos in New York City. The four main elements of hip hop culture are MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti, and breakdancing.
1975 - Disco music takes off in the mainstream pop charts in the United States and Europe, causing discotheques to experience a rebirth.
1975 - Record pools begin, enabling disc jockeys access to newer music from the industry in an efficient method.
1976 - American DJ, editor, and producer Walter Gibbons remixes "Ten Percent" by Double Exposure, one of the earliest commercally released 12" singles (aka "maxi-single").
1977 - Hip hop DJ Grand Wizard Theodore invents the scratching technique by accident.
1977 - New York's Studio 54 nightclub grosses $7 million in its first year of business (which is roughly $21 million in today's dollars after adjusting for inflation). In the same year, the motion picture Saturday Night Fever popularizes discotheques and becomes one of the top-10 grossing films in history (at the time).
1979 - The Sugar Hill Gang release "Rapper's Delight", the first hip hop record to become a hit. It was also the first real breakthrough for sampling, as the bassline of CHIC's"Good Times" laid the foundation for the song.
1979 - An anti-disco protest in Chicago's Comiskey Park marks the major backlash against disco amongst rock music fans. This is considered by some to be the year that disco "died", although the music remained popular for several more years, particularly in underground clubs and in Europe, where the subgenres Euro Disco and Italo Disco emerged.
1981 - Cable television network MTV is launched, originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. The term "video jockey", or VJ, was used to describe the fresh faced youth who introduced the music videos.
1982 - The demise of disco in the mainstream by the summer of 1982 forces many nightclubs to either close or to change entertainment styles, such as by providing MTV style video dancing or live bands.
1982 - "Planet Rock" by DJ Afrika Bambaataa is the first hip hop song to feature synthesizers. The song melded electronic hip hop beats with the melody from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express".
1982 - The compact disc reached the public market in Asia and early the following year in other markets. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution.
1983 - House music emerges. The name was derived from the Warehouse club in Chicago, where the resident DJ, Frankie Knuckles, mixed old disco classics and Eurosynth pop. House music is essentially disco music with electronic beats. The common element of most house music is a 4/4 beat generated by a drum machine or other electronic means (such as a sampler), together with a solid (usually also electronically generated) bassline.
1983 - Jesse Saunders releases the first house music track, "On & On".
mid-1980s - New York Garage emerges at DJ Larry Levan's Paradise Garage nightclub in New York. The style was a result of the club DJs who would unsuccessfully try to duplicate the Chicago house sound, for example, leaving out the accentuated high-hats.
mid-1980s - Techno music emerges from the Detroit club scene. Being geographically located between Chicago and New York, Detroit techno combined elements of Chicago house and New York garage along with European imports. Techno distanced itself from disco's roots by becoming almost purely electronic with synthesized beats.
1985 - The Winter Music Conference starts in Fort Lauderdale Florida and becomes the premier electronic music conference for dance music disc jockeys.
1986 - "Walk This Way", a rap-rock collaboration by Run DMC and Aerosmith, becomes the first hip hop song to reach the Top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100. This song is the first exposure of hip hop music, as well as the concept of the disc jockey as band member and artist, to many mainstream audiences.
1988 - The acid house scene emerges in the UK. Originally called "acid parties" for a select few, the events grew in size and popularity, eventually spreading throughout England, Europe, the United States, and the rest of the world.
early 1990s - The rave scene grows out of the acid-house scene. Many elements of the rave scene, such as baggy pants and breakdancing, appear to be inherited from the Northern Soul scene of the UK approximately 15 years earlier. The notion of "trainspotting," for example, derives from Northern Soul's emphasis on researching and collecting rare & obscure records; while preventing other DJs from stealing titles via "white labels". The rave scene forever changed dance music, the image of DJs, and the nature of promoting. The innovative marketing surrounding the rave scene created the first superstar DJs.
early 1990s - The compact disc surpasses the gramophone record in popularity, but gramophone records continue to be made (although in very limited quantities) into the 21st century, particularly for club DJs and for local acts recording on small regional labels.
mid-1990s - Trance music emerges as a result of producers who wanted to transform repetitive, instrumental rave music into commercially accessible pop songs with vocals. Trance was central to the success of commercial dance music and superstar DJs such as Paul Oakenfold.
1992 - MPEG which stands for the Moving Picture Experts Group, releases The MPEG-1 standard, designed to produce reasonable sound at low bit rates. MPEG-1 Layer-3 popularly known as MP3 (a Lossy format) will revolutionize the digital music domain.
1992 - Promo Only, a popular music service for disc jockeys is launched.
1993 - The first Internet "radio station", Internet Talk Radio, was developed by Carl Malamud. Because the radio signal is relayed over the Internet, it is possible to access internet radio stations from anywhere in the world. This makes it a popular service for both amateur and professional disc jockeys operating from a personal computer.
1995 - The first full-time, Internet-only radio station, Radio HK, begins broadcasting the music of independent bands.
late 1990s - Nu metal bands such as KoЯn, Limp Bizkit, and Linkin Park reach the height of popularity. This new subgenre of alternative rock bears some influence from hip hop, because rhythmic innovation and syncopation are primary, often featuring DJs as bandmembers.
late 1990s - Various DJ and VJ software programs are developed, allowing personal computer users to deejay or veejay using his or her personal music or video files.
1998 - The first MP3 digital audio player is released, the Eiger Labs MPMan F10.
1998 - Final Scratch is announced by Amsterdam based N2IT. This program "mapped" digital music files onto timecoded vinyl records that were then played on a traditional DJ setup. This was the first product of its kind, and later spawned a slew of competing products (including Serato Scratch Live, Ms. Pinky, and Mixvibes). Final Scratch was later bought by Stanton Magnetics, and its software development is now handled by Native Instruments.
1999 - Shawn Fanning releases Napster, the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems.
1999 - late 1999 - AVLA (Audio Video Licensing Agency) of Canada announces MP3 DJing license. Administered by the Canadian Recording Industry Association. DJs can now apply for a license giving them the right to burn their own compilation CDs of "useable tracks," instead of having to cart their whole CD collections around to their gigs.
2001 - Apple Computer's iPod is introduced and quickly becomes the highest selling brand of portable digital mp3 audio player. The convenience and popularity of the iPod spawns a new type of DJ, the self-penned "MP3J". First appearing in certain East London clubs, and spreading to other music scenes, including New York City, this new DJ scene allows the average music fan to bring two iPods to an "iPod Night", plug in to the mixer, and program a playlist without the skill and equipment demanded by a more traditional DJ setup.
2001 - late 2001 - Atlanta, Georgia, The fist Computerized Performance System Disc Jockey gathering was scheduled and organized during the small DJ3 convention. CPS mixing culture begins to emerge and organize.
2005 - Computerized Performance System Disc Jockey Summit is launched. Hosted by Professor Jam and originally developed as a social gathering in 2001, it was the first dedicated computer disc jockey industry event.

Bibliography

  • Poschardt, Ulf (1998). DJ Culture. London: Quartet Books. ISBN 0-704-38098-6
  • Brewster, Bill & Broughton, Frank (2000). Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5 (North American edition). London: Headline. ISBN 0-747-26230-6 (U.K. edition).
  • Lawrence, Tim (2004). Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-1979 . Duke University Press. ISBN 0822331985.

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